Dr. William G. Kaelin, Jr., Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, and Dr. Gregg L. Semenza won the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work related to a genetic condition called von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL). VHL is a hereditary cancer syndrome that is associated with an increased risk for cancerous and benign tumors in…

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    1. Nettie Stevens (1861-1912, American) discovered that a fetus’s sex is determined by chromosomes contributed by the parents during conception. Previously it was believed that the environmental factors during conception determined sex.       2. Charlotte Auerbach (1899-1994, German) has been called the “mother of mutagenesis” due to her discovery of genetic…

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